Sunday, December 28, 2014

Fascinating! Historic Photos: the Russian Orthodox Church in Argentina

  in original Russian, machine-English, and some Spanish: 


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History of the Russian Orthodox Church in Argentina

Author: Vera nun incl. December 28, 2014. Posted in History of the Russian Orthodox Church (Views: 13)

History of the Orthodox Church in Argentina is very interesting, especially for the simple and humble hearts, the seer in the everyday events of Divine Providence and the infinite love of the Almighty to us sinners. So it should be, as said our Lord Jesus Christ: "... but the hair of your head perish ... ... none of them (sparrows) falls to the ground without your Father ... "(Lk. 21:18, Matt. 10:29).

In the middle of the XIX century over immigration has brought to the shores of Argentina's first Orthodox Greeks and Slavs (Dalmatians and Montenegrins), which from the cradle were great sailors, and here were taken with raspostёrtymi arms, quickly finding its application-specific knowledge in the field of navigation.
These pioneers of progress have provided invaluable services to the Republic of Argentina, back in the days when the national fleet was only in its infancy, and more than once they shed their blood together with the local population, fighting against the enemies of their new homeland.

A short time later, after the arrival of the Greeks and the Slavs an influx of Syrians and Lebanese, belonging to the Patriarchate of Antioch, who initially engaged in a modest street trading now reached extraordinary heights, occupying one of the first places in commerce and industry in Argentina.

All of these immigrants were the first proavoslavnuyu community whose interests were not represented by anyone. In all of South America was not a single Orthodox Church, no Orthodox priest, and to meet their spiritual needs, as well as for registration of marriages and baptisms of children (ie, to obtain a birth certificate, because in those days such documents issued in the church) have been forced to turn to people of other faiths. Everything that they wrote in the petition, which, through the mediation of the Consul General of Russia in Buenos Aires, Don Pedro Christophersen, gave His Majesty the Emperor Alexander III, asking him to send in the Argentine capital of an Orthodox priest.

This petition, dated the first of October 1887, was signed by the following gentlemen: Milo Vukassovichem captains, Ivan Vukassovichem, Nicholas and George Bakmas, Mark Vukassovichem, Bozo Vukassovichem, Spiro Radulovic, Milo Zlokovichem, Spiro Yashichem and other representatives of the Slavs. From the Greeks put their signatures to the captain Photios Vosinas, Manuel Yasidakis Francis Lura, Ilya Lichas, Andrew Bista, George Pneumatikos Mark Skalkotti and others.

His Majesty the Emperor Alexander III showed understanding of the sons of Mother Church, orphaned, and 14 June (by old style) in 1888 signed a decree that ordered to establish the Orthodox Church in Buenos Aires at the Imperial Russian mission in South America.

So, in a time when Argentina was not even half a dozen Russian Orthodox, at the request of the Orthodox Christians of other nationalities was founded first and at that time the only Orthodox Church in South America.

1/13 January 1889, the priest Mikhail Petrovich Ivanov was made ​​first Orthodox liturgy in the church, located in the wage-philistine house on the street Talcahuano, in the presence of the Russian Ambassador Mr. Alexander Ёnina, Mr. Consul General Don Pedro Christophersen, all Orthodox and many prominent members of Argentine society.

In the Well Eden were committed several baptisms. In the register of the church, at number one male infant was listed Alexander, the son of a Greek Panaiotisa Pitzasa. Alexander was given the name of the child's parents in honor of His Majesty the Emperor Alexander III. Number one female was listed Girl Sofia, daughter of Captain Don Juan Vukassovicha subsequently outstanding Ms. Dona Sofia de Vukassovich Skannapieko.

Great was the joy of the faithful on the occasion of the opening of the temple, but unfortunately, it lasted a short time, as its rector, priest, Fr. Mikhail Ivanov, was forced to return home for family reasons.
In those days, from January 19, 1889, the young Constantine bricks is at The Hague (Netherlands), performing as a reader in the church. April 15, 1891, he was appointed rector of the church in Buenos Aires. Arriving in the country, he found it deserted, devoid of all the basic necessities. It is situated on the street Defensa. Father Constantine made a promise to make every effort to ensure that put it in proper order and raise its prestige. Assembled Greeks, Yugoslavs, Syrians and Lebanese, Bulgaria, Romania. Recall that while the Russian Orthodox were not more than half a dozen. They were relatively few in number and are very poor, but have lived in the heart and spiritual unity as one family, in harmony and concord. Young and energetic father Constantine was concerned primarily in order to fulfill his promise, and he sent a Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Finance in St. Petersburg relevant reports, soliciting for funds to build a church, the building of which would adequately represent the Catholic, Apostolic Orthodox faith. The result was zero.
Nevertheless, His Excellency Chief Procurator of the Holy Synod, Mr. Konstantin Pobedonostsev reacted favorably to the messages of his father Constantine Izraztsov, and asked permission to His Majesty the Emperor Alexander III in full support of this initiative. Thus, in 1897, the father of Constantine tiles taking a trip to Russia, to address the generous Russian people, and collects private donations, publishing appeals in newspapers, spreading them through leaflets and reciting sermons in cathedrals and churches of St. Petersburg, Moscow , Nizhny Novgorod and other cities. The results of these efforts were impressive: some people donated cash, others - gave the necessary items and utensils: icons, crosses, chalices, vestments, and other matter.   
Mr. Konstantin Pobedonostsev

These efforts have been well received by His Majesty the King of the holy Martyr Nicholas II and his august Mother, Empress Feodorovna Marey, as well as other members of the imperial family. Father Constantine tiles honored private audiences, which with their characteristic benevolence and generosity, family members encouraged the young Russian word missionary and inspired the continuation begun to do, at the same time making their generous private donations. Thanks to all that made possible the beginning of work, and 6/18 December 1898, the feast of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, in the day of His Majesty been administered holy Tsar-Martyr Nicholas II, was held laying of the foundation stone of the temple. Plans on the preliminary draft of the famous architect, academician of the Holy Synod, MT Transfiguration, were drawn up by architect Don Alexander Christopherson, who directed the work, also for free.
On the occasion of laying the foundation stone of the temple of the Russian charge d'affaires in Argentina, Mr. Alexander Grigoryevich Greger were minted bronze and silver commemorative medals, now is a large rarity.
Consecration of the temple, erected in the style of Moscow churches XVII and XVIII centuries, located on the street Brazil, opposite a beautiful park "Lezama", held on 6 October 1901 in the presence of His Excellency the President of the Republic of Argentina, Lieutenant General Julio A. Roca, cabinet ministers, representatives of the Diplomatic Corps and the local municipal authorities. The Greek government was represented in the person of His Majesty the Comte de Sala, Plenipotentiary Ambassador of France, who at that time represented the interests of the Greeks in our country. Neither Yugoslavia nor Romania or Bulgaria had its diplomatic and consular missions in Argentina. Thus, the Orthodox appeared worthy representation of their faith - the Holy Trinity Church, located at ul. Brazilian 315. Under his vaults Orthodox Christians of different nationalities gathered for spiritual solace and strengthen their faith.
Today we can say: "Come and see the Church, which from the earliest centuries of Christianity preserved the integrity of all of its dogma!"
The Orthodox Church has preserved and intact through the centuries brought the worship of the early Christian church, and in no way changed the dogma approved seven Ecumenical Councils, held in the first nine centuries of Christianity. It fully complied with one of its objectives - to keep religion in its entirety, it inherited from the early Christian church, even to the division into East and West, the Greek-Roman.
Mr. Alexander Hristoferson; EV Lieutenant General Julio A. Roca; EV Metropolitan Anthony 
The arrival of President Julio A. Roca

It goes without saying that the presence of the President of the Republic, Ministers, the Diplomatic Corps gave the opening ceremony of the temple unique brilliance and splendor that was fully reflected October 7, 1901 in the pages of the newspaper "La Prensa", "La Nacion" and other publications in which we find the following lines: "... Archpriest said that his aspirations come true - open Russian church in Buenos Aires. Explain to freely and properly on kastezhano (Argentine version of the Spanish language), he welcomed everyone and offered up a prayer for the Republic of Argentina and its authorities, noting with satisfaction that there can live in the world, people from around the world ... "" And that's where we are already under thin exhilarating impression of the ceremony, we were literally shocked the words spoken Russian priest of the brotherhood of nations, words that we would like to hear from the lips of the priests of all religions. ". (La Nacion, year XXXII, N? 10.019, p. 5, from October 7, 1901) In the same sermon Archpriest Konstantin tiles stressed that "... the construction of our church was in response to requests from Orthodox Christians living in Argentina, and its purpose - to meet the spiritual needs of the Orthodox, who did not have any of his priest, nor his church. We come in peace and fraternal intentions towards all, and we hope that we reciprocate, because our church in their daily ektiniyah praying for peace around the world, the unity of all, on the floating traveling, illnesses, suffering, pray for seasonable airs, the abundance of fruits of the earth in this hospitable country, praying for living in the Republic of Argentina and its authorities. "
Therefore, in the end, the father of Constantine offered up a special prayer for His Excellency the President of the Republic of Argentina Gen. Don Julio A. Roca and the entire Argentine nation, asking for them, Almighty God health, prosperity, peace and good rushed for many years! On the chorus chant said: "Many years, many of the summer, many years!"
This prayer was the occasion one joker journalist lay down a poem, which was published in the same old-world magazine. Here is what was written:
"During the opening ceremony of the Russian church the priest prayed to heaven that it has preserved to our" Dear Mr. President, General Don Julio Argentino Roca "in good health for many years."
If God asked the priest
to Rock always in the government was
constantly stretch and
I know certainly
the Eternal acts on understanding
And He is suspected
of possible abuse
in the blessing he refuses and says:
I'm sorry, and I apologize
but in one moment unpleasant :
Russian language I do not understand ...
(The magazine "Caras and Karetas" for October 12, 1901, the last page).
Construction in the Argentine capital of an Orthodox church, the only representative of the oldest and purest religion of the early Christian Church, was an important event in the history of Orthodoxy in South America and the clear evidence of God's grace and favor to the nascent Orthodox community established in the country people of different nationalities.
Among the important events of the era select one:
Visiting the temple outside of Brazil, His Majesty the King of the former Bulgarian Ferdinand, who asked to perform "Te Deum" for the health, peace and blessing rushed his son Tsar Boris III and the whole Bulgarian people.
For many years we lived in a community with a diverse group of people of different nationalities, without contradictions and disagreements, we were one family, united, welcoming, which reigned mutual respect and understanding.
Archpriest Konstantin tiles should from time to time to travel inland, sometimes in very remote areas, for care of his parishioners, with no means of communication, traveling in a very embarrassing conditions: lack of water, or vice versa, with its excess, or under the scorching slontsem in the terrible cold weather. And so it is understandable that such travel is always brought people to spiritual satisfaction, frank and sincere.
Reception of the Romanian Representative
Banquet in Syrian society

Montenegrins in Chaco

To this end, our great Orthodox missionary visited the Greeks, Syrians and Lebanese, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and Romania, scattered in almost all provinces and across the vast territory of the country, as an attache of the Russian Imperial Mission. Because of this, local residents learned that their neighbors, who accompanied the priest with a crucifix on his chest - Christians, as previously Orthodox faith was completely unknown in Argentina. In 1903, the country comes assistant, Father Niphon, a Syrian by birth, a man worthy of all praise, who has done service in Arabic. Alternating Greek, Slavic, Arabic and Spanish, committed service to the Orthodox congregation of different nationalities.
Father Niphon 
After the death of his father replaced his father Niphon Paul Jury, then Father Gregory Abu Khattab, and finally, the father Archimandrite Ignatius Aburrus, which is especially recommended to His Holiness Patriarch of Antioch Gregory Haddad. In 1909, Rusyns, who arrived from Austria and founded large colonies in the province of Misiones, was asked to take them to the jurisdiction of our Church. After their conversion to the Orthodox faith, they were taken under our wing and created a large parish priests with the current, which includes the following settlements: Tres Kapones, San Isidro and Capon Bonito.
During World War II, our clergy had to specifically address the problems of our parishioners: Syrians and Lebanese, Yugoslavs from Dalmatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina; First - as Turkish nationals, and the second - as the Austrian. All of them were considered enemies of the Allied Powers and were recorded in the "black lists". As a consequence, the Slavs lost their jobs and were fired and several houses and the British and French firms, while the Syrians and Lebanese, do business, having trouble getting the goods ordered and shipped from Europe before the war - for these goods have been seized.
Father Constantine to participate effectively and stood up for his flock before the then ambassadors - a Frenchman and an Englishman M. Jumilla Mr. Tower, and most importantly - to the sales representative of the British mission, which is particularly rampant, imposing on the arrests of enemy goods.
In connection with the war with Japan, and also because of permanent foreign and anti-Christian influence on the minds of the so-called Russian "intelligentsia" in Russia since the first decade of the twentieth century, growing social unrest. In 1911, being far from the homeland, and in anticipation of even more serious problems that will arise in the Empire, and undoubtedly affect Imperial religious missions in South America, the father of Constantine goes far-sighted, and by Mr. Nicholas Mihanovichi gets a big loan for the construction of apartment house on the street Europe, now Carlos Calvo 500, measuring 15 meters wide and 45 meters layer interior, with 14 kvartirami.Blagodarya this initiative, our Church enjoyed full autonomy for almost a century. This allowed not only to continue to perform the service and maintain the clergy and their families, but also to provide assistance to hundreds of refugees who later began to arrive in the country. Help our church in Buenos Aires, even reaching out to the Old World, where by the Red Cross to send money, and take part in the search for missing during the war, relatives and family reunification.
Unfortunately, since 1999 and until today, the house on the street. Carlos Calvo 500 illegally occupied, and the investigating judge (Dr. Gloria Maria Keoe) in court number 11, 79 Secretariat, the case № 12.467, still has not made a decision on the case, despite having at its disposal all the legal documents confirming the right of owning a home of our church, as well as resolutions of Appeal Chamber of the return rudely usurped the house, which is a vital source of income for our existence.
In this situation, we can not properly conduct services, and even less able to engage in charitable activities, which has historically characterized our church.
1915 father of Constantine founded in Rosario chapel for Orthodox Christians of various nationalities, bringing elements of its interior decoration of our church in Buenos Aires.
During the first half of its existence in the Republic of Argentina, a major role in the review of local residents with the Orthodox Church, its doctrine, services and traditions played a part of his father Constantine and his mother Izraztsov, Helen Joseph 'BuChE in various official functions. As Attache of the Russian Imperial Mission and the diplomatic corps, being officially recognized by the Argentine government, the father of Constantine with my mother attended the thanksgiving «Te Deum» in the metropolitan cathedral, the presidential reception at Government House on the celebrations organized by government ministers and members of the diplomatic corps accredited in Argentina. Naturally, the emergence of social Christian priest and his wife could not pass unnoticed, and for many it was not just a "strange", but also "interesting" that, in turn, leads to a desire to learn more about this religion, according to which the parish priest must to be married, and even the "father of the family." Without going into the dogmatic differences between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church, the presence of married parish priest for most has been the most obvious, a clear distinction between the Christian churches. Some saw this difference, perceived it positively but quietly; majority - with enthusiasm, so much advising enter such an institution (a married clergy) and the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church, which in the nineteenth century in some South American republics this question has been the subject of various discussions.
You must make one clarification. Previously accredited to the Government of the South American republics were five only Russian Ambassador and Secretary, who tend to be in Rio de Janeiro. Therefore, in many cases, the honor of representing the Russian Empire fell out Monsignor tiled and Honorary Consul, who at the time was inostrantsem.V 1917 in Argentina comes Father Superior Averky Sunrise, who until his death was the second parish priest. More than forty years since the founding of the temple there served as Father Deacon John Milenko.
As a consequence of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia hospitable shores of Argentina began to arrive the first Russian refugees, mostly intellectuals, with their families. Since there was no ambassador or consul, but only a spiritual representation, no easy task placement, job placement and protection of these brothers of refugees fell on his father Constantine.
Imperial Russian diplomatic mission in Argentina was never the owner of any property in this country, and its ambassadors and consuls, usually living in Rio de Janeiro. Some of them stayed in hotels, for example, in "Grand Hotel" or briefly filmed homes for rent. Therefore, immediately after the revolution, the Russian Orthodox Church in Argentina took care of accommodation and meals devoid of all support these diplomats.
A few years later, when in the neighboring republics formed a compact group of Russian refugees, the clergy of the Russian Orthodox Church in Argentina was announced on the need to build new churches and new churches were built in the city of Montevideo (Eastern Republic of Uruguay), Asuncion (Paraguay) and Villa Alpina (Sao Paulo, Brazil).

7/25 April 1925 in Moscow, died, His Holiness Bishop Tikhon, Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox last Church of Imperial Russia. September 23, 1926 received the status of a legal entity of the Russian Orthodox Association in Argentina (Decree 167/26).
Immediately after the fall of the Russian Empire, the Greeks and Syrians and Lebanese have organized their own parishes, with the priests of their nationalities. With all of them, we support the fraternal and spiritual connection. Many Greeks and Syrians and the Lebanese because of sympathy, the old ties of friendship and spiritual brotherhood for many years, remained in our church as parishioners and members of the Russian Orthodox Association in Argentina, officially called our society recognized by the executive branch, with a legal entity and charter, approved by His Excellency the President of the Republic.
Father Constantine tiles died January 6, 1953, and his position of Head of the Russian Orthodox Church in Argentina and president of the Association took the archpriest Fedor Formanchuk.
Until the 80s of the last century Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and Romania to continue up the backbone of our parishioners.
May 10, 1956 the Moscow Patriarchate, through its authorized in Argentina and South America priest Thomas Herasymchuk, filed a lawsuit against the Russian Orthodox Association in Argentina, disputing ownership of property belonging to the latter. Litigation continued until 1975. In the first and second instance of the Patriarchate in the lawsuit was dismissed. April 10, 1965 was announced the decision of the trial court. Later, the Court of Justice for civil cases ratified the judge rendered in civil cases, Mr. Jorge A. Kafferatoy decision. Among other things, the Trial Chamber confirmed the following: "The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate", whose members refer to Art. 63 (App. II - Purpose), never owned property, which they claim, and therefore, they are denied the claim, in accordance with Art. 2758 of the Civil Code. "Despite the satisfactory verdicts and the court's decision on the cost-sharing by the plaintiff, our church was forced to pay the costs for fifteen trial, which was attended by experts and interpreters that made him a very costly affair, as the plaintiff announced its financial insolvency.
May 22, 1977, a few minutes after the baptism in the church, died archpriest Fedor Formanchuk.
His place, the abbot of Holy Trinity Cathedral, with the blessing of the Synod of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia, took his father Valentin Iwaszewicz.
In the same year, the General Meeting, the father Valentin Iwaszewicz was elected President of the Russian Orthodox Association in Argentina.
In 1988, the Russian people celebrated the millennium of Christianity Russia. In the same year, our Russian Orthodox Church in Argentina celebrated the first century of its existence, in this blessed country. Were held various church services, to which were invited, among others, Bishop Gennadios, Archbishop of Argentine and South American Greek Orthodox Church, which was accompanied by priests, and Father Archimandrite Benjamin of Santiago de Chile.
Important historical events of recent years was the seventh International Congress of the Russian Orthodox Youth, which was held in Buenos Aires, the liturgical center of which was our temple. In the congress was attended by over a hundred representatives of youth from Argentina, Russia, France, Belgium, Germany, Italy, UK, Australia, Canada, United States, Venezuela, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay. In addition to the general importance of such events for the life of the Church, causing uplift, in this case, it should be noted two events that are particularly important for the South American diocese, and, in particular, for our church: visit to Argentina for the first time, the miraculous myrrh-streaming icon of the Mother of God and the Iberian Peroierarha Russian Orthodox Church Abroad Vladyka Metropolitan Vitaly.
Indeed, the presence of all the days of the congress of the holy icon and direct participation in the First Hierarch of our services, discussions and meetings have contributed to the extraordinary uplift all those present in the life of the Church in our diocese. Vladyka Vitaly reposed in the Lord in Canada, 12/25 September 2006, at the age of 96 years.
In 1998, our church celebrated the centenary of the consecration of Holy Trinity Church. In church celebrations involves a large number of visitors, both from Argentina and from abroad. Among them are the Secretary of the Synod, Bishop Archbishop Laurus and Bishop Alexander, bishop of Buenos Aires and South America Russian Orthodox Church Abroad. Were held a concert in the capital's Teatro San Martin and various exhibitions. Copies were minted commemorative medal issued on the occasion of laying the foundation stone of the temple. June 14 at the liturgy in the church, and then at a banquet hosted in the "President Hotel" of the capital, was attended by the head of the Secretariat on cooperation with non-Catholic faiths Dr. Centeno, the current director of the National Register of Worships Dr. Jose Cardozo Carney, government officials and representatives of the Serbian, Bulgarian and Syrian communities. In celebration actively involved members of various Russian public organizations, established in the Republic of Argentina.
With the fall of the Iron Curtain in Eastern Europe with the opening of the borders of the former Soviet Union in the 90s of the last century came to Argentina numerous citizens from countries of the former Soviet Union from Russia and from Ukraine, Moldova, Lithuania, Latvia. Many of them, like their predecessors, have met people here that have accepted them, arranged, helped make the first steps in the free world. Not all of the new arrivals were Christians, not all were Orthodox, but all of them was to render all possible assistance in accommodation, food, helped them navigate and collect the documents necessary to obtain a temporary residence permit. But above all - many of the men and their families from the shores of the distant fatherland people need spiritual food, which they had been deprived of for such a long time. So, far from their homes, in Argentina, they were able to meet with its own Orthodox faith and the true history of their country.
At the moment, the Russian Orthodox Church in Argentina there are various temples in the capital, its suburbs and in the hinterland. In recent years, parishes pastoral care at the temples lord Alexander, bishop of Buenos Aires and South American (reposed in the Lord on August 30 / September 12, 2005 after a long illness), seven priests and three deacons.
The third millennium parish of Holy Trinity Cathedral, located on the street Brazil, met, headed by its rector, Archpriest Valentin Iwaszewicz, priests, priest Alexander Iwaszewicz and Priest Michael (Miguel) Berduk, deacon father Igor Baratov, reader brother Stefan Jovanovic, constant chorus consisting of parishioners from different generations, communities, mostly represented by whole families, and the glory of God and His goodness, live in brotherly unanimity in the shadow of the Holy and Life-Giving Trinity, consubstantial and Indivisible.
Yes shine Almighty God for our church and gostipriimnuyu this country!

Brotherhood of St. Sergius,
Buenos Aires, Argentina 

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